微信视频号刷赞 权威发布 动词过去式变化规则(英语动词过去式)

动词过去式变化规则(英语动词过去式)

动词过去式变化规则(英语动词过去式)

记忆法一:常见93个不规则动词的变化规律归纳如下:

一、A—A—A型,即原形、过去式和过去分词三者都相同。(共9个)

cost—cost—cost

cut—cut—cut

hit—hit—hit

hurt—hurt—hurt

let—let— let

put—put—put

read—read—read

set—set—set

shut—shut—shut

二、A—B—B型,即过去式、过去分词相同。(共41个)

1 .过去式和过去分词都含有-ought。(3个)

bring—brought—brought

buy— bought—bought

think—thought—thought

2 .词尾有-ild,-end时,只需把d变为t。(4个)

build—built—built

lend—lent— lent

send—sent—sent

spend—spent— spent

3 .过去式、过去分词都含有-aught。(2个)

catch—caught—caught

teach—taught—taught

4. 把-eep变为-ept。(3个)

keep—kept—kept

sleep—slept—slept

sweep— swept—swept

5. 把-ell变为-old。(2个)

tell—told—told

sell—sold—sold

6. 过去式、过去分词都含有-elt或-ilt。(4个)

smell—smelt—smelt

spell—spelt—spelt

feel—felt— felt

spill—spilt—spilt

7. 过去式、过去分词都在原形词尾加t。(3个)

learn—learnt—learnt

mean—meant—meant

spoil—spoilt—spoilt

8. 过去式、过去分词词尾是d。(4个)

say—said—said

pay—paid—paid

lay—laid—laid

hear—heard—heard

9 .改变元音字母。(11个)

meet—met—met

get—got—got

sit—sat—sat

find— found—found

hold—held—held

spit—spat—spat

shine— shone—shone

win—won—won

hang—hung—hung

dig— dug—dug

lose—lost—lost

10 .改变辅音字母。(1个)

make—made—made

11 .改变元、辅音字母。(4个)

leave—left—left

stand—stood—stood

have(has)— had—had

understand—understood—understood

三、A—B—C型,即原形、过去式、过去分词都不相同。(共35个)

1. i—a—u变化。(6个)

begin—began—begun

drink—drank—drunk

sing— sang—sung

ring—rang—rung

swim—swam—swum

sink— sank—sunk

2. 词尾为-ow,-aw时,过去式将其变为-ew,过去分词在其原形后加n。(5个)

blow—blew—blown

draw—drew—drawn

grow— grew—grown

know—knew—known

throw—threw—thrown(show除外)

3. 词尾为“i+辅(1个)+e”,过去式将i变为o,过去分词多在原形后加n,若那个辅音字母为d或t,须双写d或t后加n。(4个)(give,hide除外)

drive—drove—driven

write—wrote—written

ride— rode—ridden

rise—rose—risen

4 .过去分词在过去式后加(e)n。(5个)

break—broke—broken

choose—chose—chosen

freeze—froze—frozen

speak—spoke—spoken

wake—woke— woken

5 .过去分词由过去式加-ten构成。(1个)

forget—forgot—forgotten

6. 过去分词由原形加(e)n构成。(6个)

be—was(were)—been

eat—ate—eaten

fall—fell—fallen

give—gave—given

see—saw—seen

hide—hid—hidden(hid)

7 .词尾为-ake时,过去式将其变为-ook,过去分词在原形词后加-n。(2个)

take—took—taken

mistake—mistook—mistaken

8 .原形、过去式和过去分词都不相同。(6个)

do—did—done

fly—flew—flown

go—went—gone

lie—lay—lain

show—showed—shown

wear—wore—worn

四、A—A—B型,即过去式和原形相同。(1个)

beat—beat—beaten

五、A—B—A型,即过去分词和原形相同。(3个)

come—came—come

become—became—become

run— ran—run

六、情态动词型,只有原形和过去式,没有过去分词。(4个)

can—could

may—might

will—would

shall—should

★记忆法二

一、 原形、过去式、过去分词相同:

cost/cut/hit/hurt/let/put/read/shut

(细心的你一定会发现,这些词中大多数是以字母t结尾的。)

二、 原形、过去式相同,过去分词不同:

beat/beat/beaten

三、 原形、过去分词相同,过去式不同:

come/came/come become/became/become run/ran/run

(come,become,属不规则变化,但welcome属规则动词,其过去式、过去分词为:welcomed,welcomed)

四、 过去式,过去分词相同:

(1) 去掉字母组合ee中的一个e

meet/met/met feed/fed/fed

(2) 去掉字母组合ee中的一个e,然后再在词尾加t

feel/felt/felt sleep/slept/slept

keep/kept/kept sweep/swept/swept

(3) 词尾为的ll 去掉一个l加t

spell/spelt/spelt smell/smelt/smelt spill/spilt/spilt

(4) 过去式和过去分词以aught或ought结尾

catch/caught/caught teach/taught/taught bring/brought/brought

buy/bought/bought think/thought/thought

(5) 将stand改为stood

stand/stood/stood understand/understood/understood

(6) 将ay改为aid

lay/laid/laid pay/paid/paid say/said/said

(7) 将d改为t

lend/lent/lent send/sent/sent

spend/spent/spent build/built/built

(8) 将i改为a , o, u等

sit/sat/sat spit/spat/spat

dig/dug/dug win/won/won

(9) 将ell改为old

tell/told/told sell/sold/sold

(10) 词尾加t

learn/learnt/learnt mean/meant/meant

dream/dreamt/dreamt spoil/spoilt/spoilt

(11) 有两种过去式和过去分词, 一种是不规则的, 一种是规则的:

learn/learnt/learnt learn/learned/learned

shine/shone/shone shine/shined/shined

hang/hung/hung hang/hanged/hanged

smell/smelt/smelt smell/smelled/smelled

burn/burnt/burnt burn/burned/burned

light/lii/lit light/lighted/lighted

(12) 其它

have(has)/had/had hear/heard/heard

shoot/shot/shot lose/lost/lost

hold/held/held get/got/got(AmE gotten)

find/found/found make/made/made

leave/left/left

五、三者均不同:

(1) 过去式以ew结尾、过去分词以own结尾

blow/blew/blown fly/flew/flown

grow/grew/grown know/knew/known

throw/threw/thrown

值得注意的是:

show/showed/shown或showed draw/drew/drawn

(2)改i为a变成过去式、改i为u变成过去分词

begin/began/begun drink/drank/drunk

ring/rang/rung sing/sang/sung

swim/swam/swum sink/sank/sunk

(3)改i为o变成过去式,过去分词以n结尾

drive/drove/driven write/wrote/written

rise/rose/risen ride/rode/ridden

(4) 原形后加n变成过去分词

drive/drove/driven rise/rose/risen eat/ate/eaten

give/gave/given fall/fell/fallen

(5) 过去式后加n变成过去分词

break/broke/broken choose/chose/chosen

freeze/froze/frozen mistake/mistook/mistaken

steal/stole/stolen speak/spoke/spoken

take/took/taken wake/woke/woken(或woke)

(6)其它

be/was或were/been do/did/done forget/forgot/forgotten

go/went/gone hide/hid/hidden see/saw/seen

wear/wore/worn

六、 有两种过去式和过去分词,但词义相同。

wake/woke/woken (或woke) wake/waked/waked

sink/sank/sunk sink/sunk/sunken

七、动词因其过去式、过去分词有两种形式而产生不同词义:

shine、hang的两种过去式和过去分词:

shone/shone照耀shined/shined擦亮

hung/hung悬挂hanged/hanged绞死

八、两个既可以做过去式,又可以做动词原形的词

lie躺卧lay/lain/lying(现在分词)

lay放,下蛋laid/laid/laying

find 找到、发现find/found/found

found 创建,成立 found/founded/founded

九、根据动词之间的词义联系来记忆

(一)词义相对:

(1) come/came/come来

—— go/went/gone去

(2) give/gave/given给

——get/got/got(AmE gotten)获得

(3) sleep/slept/slept睡觉

—wake/woke/woken (或woke)

或wake/waked/waked 醒来

(4) rise/rose/risen上升、上涨、升起

——fall/fell/fallen下降、落下、倒下

sink/sank/sunk sink/sunk/sunken 沉下, (使)下沉

(5) buy/bought/bought买

—— sell/sold/sold出售, 卖

(6) take/took/taken带去

——bring/brought/brought 带来

(7) teach/taught/taught教

——learn/learnt/learnt

或learn/learned/learned学习、学会

(8) lose/lost/lost丢失、失败

——find/found/found找到

win/won/won赢得、(获)胜

(9) stand/stood/stood站、立

——sit/sat/sat坐

(10) send/sent/sent 送、寄、发送

——get/got/got获得、收到

(二)词义相近:

(1) beat/beat/beaten 打, 打败

win/won/won赢得、获胜

(2) understand/understood/understood

懂, 了解

know/knew/known 知道, 了解, 认识

(3) get/got/got(AmE gotten)变成、成为、变得

become/became/become 变成, 成为, 变得

go/went/gone变成

turn/turned/turned变成

(4) spend/spent/spent 花费、度过

pay/paid/paid 支付、交纳

cost/cost/cost花费、价值为

take/took/taken花费

(5) say/said/said说、讲

speak/spoke/spoken说、演讲

tell/told/told 告诉、说、吩咐、断定

talk/talked/talked谈话, 讲, 谈论, 议论

★记忆法三:

1.无变化,过去式与原形相同。

let→let, put→put, hit→hit, must→must, set→set, beat→beat, cast→cast, cost→cost, cut→cut, hurt→hurt, read→red, shut→shut

(shed→shed split→split spread→spread burst→burst)

2.元音字母的变化。

i→a:

begin→began, drink→drank, ring→rang, sing→sang, swim→swam, give→gave, sit→sat, sink→sank

i→o:

drive→drove, ride→rode, shine→shone, write→wrote, rise→rose, win→won,

(strive→strove arise→arose)

i→ou:

find→found (wind→wound, bind→bound, grind→ground)

a→oo: take→took, shake→shook

e→o: get→got, forget→forgot

o→a: come→came, become→became

oo→o: shoot→shot, choose→chose

3.元音字母组合的变化。

aw/ow/y→ew:draw→drew, blow→blew, grow→grew, know→knew, throw→threw, fly→flew

4.元音字母和辅音字母都有变化。

(1) sell→sold, tell→told, retell→retold

(2) say→said, pay→paid, lay→laid, relay→relaid

(3) sweep→swept, keep→kept, sleep→slept, creep→crept

(4) bring→brought, buy→bought, think→thought, fight→fought

(5) catch→caught, teach→taught

(6) can→could, will→would, shall→should

5.辅音字母变化。

(1)build→built, send→sent, bend→bent, lend→lent, rend→rent, spend→spent

(2)make→made, have→had, hear→heard

(3)mean→meant, learn→learnt

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作者: long1229

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